Artificial insemination with donor sperm is an assisted reproduction technique (ART) that is indicated for:
- Couples with a serious or irreversible sperm disorder.
- Couples in which the male partner is at risk of transmitting a disease to his descendants.
- Women without a male partner who desire pregnancy.
The selection of sperm donors is the responsibility of sperm banks. Before donors are accepted, they undergo rigorous examination to prevent any possible transmission of diseases to descendants. This examination includes, in addition to a semen analysis, a genetic study (Karyotype) and a study of infectious diseases (Hepatitis, Syphilis, AIDS, etc..).
The pregnancy rate is between 20 and 25% per treatment cycle.
Most pregnancies occur in the first three cycles of insemination, although factors like the woman’s age and the possible existence of other causes that can affect fertility may delay the success of treatment a little longer.
Generally, up to six cycles of insemination are performed. When a cycle is unsuccessful, it is important to review it and make the changes necessary to achieve maximum efficacy in the next cycle. However, if pregnancy still is not achieved, the existence of other anomalies and/or the possibility of resorting to another ART may be contemplated.
In some cases it is advisable to use ovulation stimulation treatments with oral tablets or subcutaneous injections. These treatments are designed to ensure that ovulation occurs correctly in order to increase the possibilities of achieving pregnancy. However, these treatments entail certain risks (see complications).
Previous requirements for insemination
- Complete gynecological examination.
- Complementary study to rule out associated pathology that makes pregnancy difficult or impossible to achieve.
- Identification of the donor who best coincides with the physical characteristics (phenotype, eye color, skin, hair and blood group) of the couple or the patient herself.